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Online Articles from The Survey and Survey Graphic

Cover Graphic, "Education That Informs," Nov 37, v26, n11.
The following list includes seventy-seven articles from Survey Graphic and nine from The Survey, arranged by publication in chronological order. This online collection currently consists of articles from 1933 to 1941. All these articles are now in the public domain, although many of the illustrations that originally accompanied them may still be under copyright. For that reason, only of few of those articles in which photographs or illustrations have been found to be in the public domain are included with graphic illustrations intact. Those articles are noted: illustrated.

Survey Graphic
Borsodi, Ralph
"Subsistence Homesteads"
January, 1934, Vol. 23, No. 1, p. 11.
Where do most of the unemployed live? If you go through the smaller communities of New York and Connecticut you will find no starvation, no evictions, few people who have not got an overcoat or a pair of shoes. And if you go into the farming areas you will not find people starving on the farms. On the contrary.
Ickes, Harold L.
"Saving the Good Earth"
February, 1934, Vol. 23, No. 2, p. 53.
THE "inland empire" is one name for the twenty-seven states drained by the river system that stands like a great tree in the center of a map of this country, its roots in the Gulf of Mexico, its topmost twigs across the Canadian border. This region, one of the chief agricultural areas of the earth, shared less than other sections in the late "prosperity" and feels with peculiar force the burden of the depression.
Ickes, Harold L.
"The Social Implications of the Roosevelt Administration"
March, 1934, Vol. 23, No. 3, p. 111.
I WONDER how many appreciated at the time what was really involved in the last presidential campaign. On the surface it was more or less a repetition of what we go through with every four years in these United States. Democrats were beating the tom-toms against the Republicans; the "ins" were solemnly advising the voters that to yield the citadel to the "outs" would plunge the country into irretrievable disaster.
Vincent, Merle D.
"Coal at the Cross-Roads"
April, 1934
Vol. 23, No. 4, p. 181 .
THE bituminous coal industry has so far failed to meet its responsibility or utilize the opportunity to govern itself which was afforded by the code approved by the President last October. By January, continued destructive price-cutting practices by coal operators so threatened the wage structure that General Johnson summoned the National Bituminous Coal Industrial Board to an emergency conference on code market violations.
Amidon, Beulah
"SECTION 7-A: The Clash Over the Most Disputed Clause in the Recovery Act "
May, 1934
Vol. 23, No. 5, p. 213.
THE hearing-room of the National Labor Board is a matter-of-fact place. But when in mid-March the automobile executives marched out of the conference summoned at Washington to forestall a strike of 100,000 of their workers, the dull room was suddenly tense with drama.
Collier, John
"Indians At Work"
June, 1934
Vol. 23, No. 6, p. 261 .
IS it too late for Indian tribes, wards of the government, to demonstrate statesmanship? Have the Indians still a race to run?

The twelve months behind, even the five years behind, have supplied, for the Indians as a whole, merely the beginnings of a possible answer.

Guild, June Purcell
"Black Richmond"
June, 1934
Vol. 23, No. 6, p. 276.
THERE were several capitals of the confederacy. But everyone knows that Richmond was, and is, The Capital of the Confederacy. There can never be another Richmond, for she is old, beautiful, historic, glamorous, langorous, cultured, ignorant, prejudiced, generous. We all know people like that, soft-voiced, self-centered, at the same time naive, interesting, exciting.
Kellogg, Florence Loeb
"Art Becomes Public Works"
June, 1934
Vol. 23, No. 6, p. 279.
WHEN the CWA admitted artists suffering from the depression to a place in its program, last December, the federal government suddenly found itself fostering a burst of creativeness in the fine arts that is unique in the history of democracies.
Taylor, Paul S., and Clark Kerr
"Whither Self-Help? "
July, 1934
Vol. 23, No. 7, p. 348.
WHAT'S happened to the barter movement? Are the self-help cooperatives dead? A year and a half ago they were news. People really trying to do something about the depression, however feeble and primitive their efforts, attracted attention at a time when business and government were sitting tight, waiting for prosperity.
Gambs, John S.
"United We Eat"
August, 1934
Vol. 23, No. 8, p. 357.
IN a district relief office in Pittsburgh, three men are sitting along one side of a table. They represent five hundred unemployed families. Opposite them sits a woman, the district supervisor. There has been excited talk. Suddenly one of the men gets up, his face white.
Taylor, Paul S., and Norman Leon Gold
"San Francisco and the General Strike "
September, 1934
Vol. 23, No. 9, p. 405.
SIXTY-FIVE thousand trade unionists during four July days staged on the shores of San Francisco Bay the second and most widespread general strike in United States history. From the sixteenth through the nineteenth they carried out an extended maneuver which surprised, bewildered, gratified, or terrified and maddened the average citizen
Taylor, Paul
"Again the Covered Wagon"
July, 1935, Vol. 24, No. 7, p. 348.
Vast clouds of dust rise and roll across the Great Plains, obscuring the lives of people, blighting homes, hampering traffic, drifting eastward to New York and westward to California. They carry the natural riches of the plains and deposit them broadcast over the nation.
Penny, Lucrecia
"Pea-Pickers' Child
July, 1935, Vol. 24, No. 7, p. 352.
The death notice in the county paper was not more than two inches in depth but it had, nevertheless, its modest headline: PEA-PICKERS CHILD DIES. Already there had been three deaths in the pea-pickers' camp: a Mexican had been murdered, stabbed; a child had died of burns; a baby had died of what his young mother referred to as "a awful fever in his little stomach."
Kidney, Daniel M.
"Harvest and Relief"
September, 1935, Vol. 24, No. 9, p. 421.
That able-bodied persons on relief will not take a job when it is offered them is the hue and cry raised wherever there are berries to be picked, onions to be topped, sugar beets to be pulled, small grain to be harvested or corn to be shocked. The charge is leveled at that lowliest of laborers—the part-time agriculture worker.
Embree, Edwin R.
"Southern Farm Tenancy"
March, 1936, Vol. 25, No. 3, p. 149.
BOOKER T. WASHINGTON used to say, "To keep a black man in the gutter a white man must stay in the gutter to hold him there." The cotton tenants have gone Booker T. Washington one better. Two white men are in the sharecrop mire for every one Negro.
Locke, Alain
"Harlem: Dark Weather-Vane"
August, 1936, Vol. 25, No. 8, p. 457.
Eleven brief years ago Harlem was full of the thrill and ferment of sudden progress and prosperity; and Survey Graphic sounded the tocsin of the emergence of a "new Negro" and the onset of a "Negro renaissance." Today, with that same Harlem prostrate in the grip of the depression and throes of social unrest, we confront the sobering facts of a serious relapse and premature setback...
Taylor, Paul S.
"From the Ground Up"
September, 1936, Vol. 25, No. 9, p. 526.
The Resettlement Administration was organized to meet the problems of rural folk such as these, who are in deepest distress, but whose rehabilitation is yet possible. Through its county and area rehabilitation supervisors it has been lending money to needy farmers who can be rehabilitated where they are, or elsewhere.

"Social Showman"
November, 1936, Vol. 25, No. 11, p. 618.
THE Big Man who created the Little Man is with us from overseas this fall. Though the two of them have not been heralded on Broadway, the Little Man is a sound actor—and Otto Neurath is his impresario.
Dewey, John
"Authority and Freedom"
November, 1936, Vol. 25, No. 11, p. 603.
THE last four centuries have displayed an ever increasing revolt against authority, first in the forms in which it was manifested and then against the principal itself. None of its important forms has been immune from assault. The assault was first directed against dominant institutions of Church and State.
Amidon, Beulah
"Children Wanted"
January, 1937, Vol. 26, No. 1, p. 10.
BACK IN 1932, Helen's father, who worked in a cotton garment factory, was laid-off "because of hard times." Helen, aged thirteen, the eldest of five children, stopped school and got a job in the factory. Her wage was $2.50 for a fifty-hour week.
Johnson, Alvin
"The Rising Tide of Anti-Semitism"
February, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 2, p. 113.
Anti-Semitism is on the increase in America. This is to be sure just an opinion, for there are no reliable quantitative estimates available to the public. Private polls may even been held; there are not uncertain rumors afloat of such polls, and they are alleged to exhibit a marked increase in antagonism to the Jews. But polls of public opinion record only the view of an instant, and offer a very inadequate basis for conclusions on lasting realities.
Ruttenberg, Harold J.
"The Big Morgue"
April, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 4, p. 266.
AS WE APPROACHED STEELVILLE FROM THE OTHER SIDE OF the river, we could see the graceful silvery mill stretching more than half a mile behind the town, at the foot of one of the hills that form the rich industrial Ohio River Valley. The late afternoon sun reflecting from the galvanized roof cast an orange light across the milltown houses and the rusty abandoned mill by the river.
Hays, Arthur Garfield
"My Tax Return"
April, 1939, Vol. 28, No.4, p. 261.
I AWAKENED ON THE MORNING OF MARCH 15 FEELING GLOOMY. This year's first installment of last year's income tax was due and I didn't have any of the last year's income left with which to pay it. While the day's troubles were sufficient unto themselves, I realized that on April 15 my first installment on the New York State income tax would be called for on the dot, with a penalty of 100 percent if delayed more than sixty days...
Howard, Kinsey
"Boisterous Butte"
May, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 5, p. 316.
YOU ROUND THE CORNER OF A HIGHWAY CLINGING TO THE continental divide, and there, suddenly, is Butte: huge, sprawling, chaotic—a very bully of a city, stridently male, blusteringly profane, boisterous and boastful—"the biggest mining camp in the world," "a mile high and a mile deep," "the richest hill on earth."
Lasker, Loula D.
"Fort Wayne's Fifty Houses"
May, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 5, p. 324.
FIFTY LITTLE HOUSES FOR FIFTY HAPPY families. Fifty good new houses to rent at $2.50 a week. Three rooms and bath for families, whether or not on relief. The bugaboo of high housing costs banished at last! Flash came this news by word of mouth and the printed page early in the year. Location, Fort Wayne, Ind. Proprietor, the Housing Authority of that midwestern town.
Walker, Charles R.
"Homesteaders—New Style"
June, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 6, p. 377.
IN THE SPRING OF 1935, RICHARD McKay sat in the office of an ex-county agent who had just been made project manager of "Roanoke Farms," North Carolina. Mr. McKay was worried. He had been a tenant farmer for eighteen years, and today he was broke, in debt, discouraged and hungry. But he still had his nerve with him.
Granneberg, Audrey
"Maury Maverick's San Antonio"
July, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 7, p. 421.
NATIONAL ATTENTION WAS FOCUSED ON SAN ANTONIO ON May 9 when Maury Maverick, leader of the progressive bloc in Congress for the last two sessions, was elected San Antonio's mayor. For several months preceding the election a vicious multi-cornered political battle had been fought. Men and issues seemed to be hopelessly confused by election day.
Neuberger, Richard L.
"The Columbia Flows to the Land"
July, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 7, p. 440.
TALES AROUND THE CAMPFIRE WERE ALL THAT THE AMERICAN patriots knew about the distant reaches of the land they had freed from Britain on July 4, 1776. At St. Louis geography ended and legend began. To bold, adventurous men no legend was as stirring as that of "the Great River Ourigan" which flowed out of the northland and emptied into the Pacific Ocean.
MacNeil, Douglas H.
"Success Stories—Work Relief Style"
July, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 7, p. 458.
IN DECEMBER 1932, A DISCONSOLATE YOUNG MAN, TWO OR three years out of college, sat on a park bench and watched his big toe come through his best shoe, while he tried to screw up courage to apply for relief. Two years later he was the executive head of an insurance enterprise handling millions of dollars annually, working in close conjunction with important medical and educational institutions.
Friendly, Alfred
"Carrots from California"
July, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 7, p. 460.
WHEN YOU DRIVE TO THE IMPERIAL VALLEY FROM any direction you follow a road leading for miles across the scorched sagebrush desert. By the time the monotony of sand, rocks and dry gullies has become unbearable, when heat waves have made your eyes burn and your head ache, you will suddenly come into the verdant garden which is the Valley.
Hartman, Alan
"Youth Finds Its Own Answers"
August, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 8, p. 492.
THE 736 DELEGATES TO THE FIFTH NATIONAL CONVENTION OF the American Youth Congress put off celebrating the Fourth of July by 24 hours. Even their most rabid critics did not hold this against them as showing any lack of patriotism. They put off going to the World's Fair for the same length of time, and when on the morning of the fifth they headed for the Flushing Meadow from Manhattan Center...
Neuberger, Richard L.
"Who Are the Associated Farmers?"
September, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 9, p. 517.
NOT SINCE THE WOBBLIES OF THE I.W.W. ROAMED THE woodlands, has any organization in the Far West stirred such savage antagonisms as the Associated Farmers. Already those antagonisms have had consequences of national significance. Internecine strife has been promoted in old established rural groups.
Shafer, Carol and Carlisle
"A Community Creates Real Jobs"
September, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 9, p. 532.
HUGE TRUCKS RUMBLED UP TO THE DOORS OF THE ALLEN-A hosiery factory in Kenosha, Wis. The company was moving to Vermont and it was taking part of its machinery with it. Eight hundred employee were laid off. It was March 1938, when business indices were falling all over the country, and Kenosha, an industrial community of 50,000, was hard hit.
Chamberlain, John
"Our Jobless Youth: a Warning"
October, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 10, p. 579.
I HAVE A FRIEND, LET US SAY HIS NAME IS JOE CAIRNS, WHO used to work in an office down the corridor from me. Two years ago Joe was an office boy, a bright one who had hopes of writing. He had been, at an incredibly youthful age, both an organizer for the CIO in eastern Pennsylvania and a communist, and as an office boy he took a deeply earnest interest in the local chapter of the American Newspaper Guild.
Beech, Gould
"Schools for a Minority"
October, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 10, p. 615.
BOOKER T. WASHINGTON, WHO STILL CONTRIBUTES AT LEAST one quotation to every discussion of Negro education, once observed that it was "too great a compliment to attribute to the Negro child the ability to gain equal education for one dollar to every seven spent on the education of the white child." Thirty years have not altered the fact which inspired the observation.
Miller, Clyde R. and Louis Minsky
"Propaganda—Good and Bad—for Democracy"
November, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 11, p. 706.
WHAT DOES EUROPE'S WAR MEAN FOR AMERICA? Now and later, this crisis means that America will be flooded with propaganda for war, propaganda for appeasement, propaganda for participation and for non-participation in the issues of Europe. Excited by these propagandas, it is likely that many of us Americans may lose our heads, throw reason out the window, follow courses of action which we may regret later.
Amidon, Beulah
"New Floors and Ceilings"
December, 1939, Vol. 28, No. 12, p. 728.
THE FIRST YEAR OF OUR FIRST FEDERAL WAGE AND HOUR act ended on October 24. It was unfortunate that the year closed with a shake up in personnel, which crowded out of the news the story of the twelve months' progress in this effort to set a bottom level for wages and a ceiling for hours in interstate industry, and to outlaw child labor.
Stoney, George C.
"Suffrage in the South Part I: The Poll Tax"
January, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 1, p. 5
Maury Maverick, mayor of San Antonio, was acquitted. They charged him with lending money to union members so they could pay their poll taxes and vote. In Texas, loans and gifts for the payment of the poll tax are against the law.
Amidon, Beulah
"The Nation and the New Republic"
January, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 1, p. 21
Most of us think and speak of them together—"The Nation and The New Republic." Even to those who know them only by name, it seems natural to bracket the two weeklies, vehicles of liberal opinion, commentators on the current scene.
Bauer, Catherine and Jacob Crane
"What Every Family Should Have"
February, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 2, p. 64
Standards are fundamental in any society concerned with the commonweal. The recognition and establishment of minimum standards has been the method by which democracy has steered a course between planless anarchy on the one hand and regulation by the state or by big business on the other.
Wood, Edith Elmer
"That "One Third of a Nation""
February, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 2, p. 83
At least a third of our housing is bad enough to be a health hazard, but not all in the same way or to the same degree. The coverage of moral hazard is less than that of physical hazard, which is fortunate, as its effects are worse.
Canfield, Dorothy
"I Visit a Housing Project"
February, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 2, p. 89
...[W]hat an American wants to know, needs to know, to keep track of what kind of country his is getting to be, is whether our national long range planning for the future intends to create conditions which he would be willing to accept for himself as the irreducible minimum of decently endurable life.
Abrams, Charles
"Housing and Politics"
February, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 2, p. 91
Throughout America's history the land question has been a central problem, a burning issue. The accute forms in which it confronts us now have been accumulating for a century: land use, security of tenure, the plight of farmers, sharecroppers, rural and urban slum dwellers, debt-burdened home owners, the stability of the whole land economy itself.
Wallace, Henry A.
"The War at Our Feet"
February, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 2, p. 109
We have thought in the past that even if the good land fell off in yield it could rather quickly be made rich again with manure and fertilizers. We know now this is not true...
Nordyke, Lewis T.
"Mapping Jobs for Texas Migrants"
March, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 3, p. 152
The Texas State Employment Service, a federal-state agency, is bringing order, better living conditions and more earning power to the Lone-Star State's 600,000 migrant farm workers...
Stoney, George C.
"Suffrage in the South, Part II: The One Party System"
March, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 3, p. 163
HOW MANY PEOPLE ARE INCLUDED IN THE "SOLID SOUTH"? If you are talking about the people in those dozen states usually thought of as southern, people who sing Stephen Foster lyrics with the proper elisions, or who like their turnip greens cooked with pork, then you can count in about the whole twenty-seven million.
Stevens, Alden
"Whither the American Indian?"
March, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 3, p. 168
Six years ago a tribe of 700 Indians in Southern New Mexico camped around the government agency, living in dilapidated tents, brush tepees, board shacks. Like hungry sparrows hoping for a crust of bread, these once proud people depended on their harassed agent to keep them somehow from starvation.
Vonderlehr, R. A., M.D.
"Are We Checking the Great Plague?"
April, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 4, p. 217
In 1936, slightly more than 500,000 people infected with syphilis sought treatment. Another half million were infected but failed to take treatment. It was also estimated that syphilis struch one out of ten adults at some time in life.
Howe, Hartley E.
"You Have Seen Their Pictures"
April, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 4, p. 236.
Farm Security Administration photographs aren't the sort of pictures one forgets easily. A pregnant farm woman standing in the doorway of her battered cabin, a group of ragged children clustered about her. A father and two children running for shelter in a dust storm...
Laughlin, Ruth
"Coronado's Country and Its People"
May, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 5, p. 277.
Throughout this summer, Spanish fiestas and Indian dances, Coronado pageantry and international conferences, will dramatize the result of four centuries of European contact with this continent. The spotlight will play on the two oldest groups in the United States, the Indians and the Spanish-Americans.
Childs, Marquis W.
"Mr. Roosevelt"
May, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 5, p. 283.
THROUGH SEVEN YEARS OF THE CRUELEST JOB IN THE WORLD President Roosevelt has kept his ebullient gaiety, an excellent digestion, and the ability to sleep like a child. His physical record is amazing in the light of rumors that persisted even in 1932 after he had served four years as governor of New York and had plunged into a furious national campaign.
Reed, Thomas H. and Doris D. Reed
"The Republican Opposition"
May, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 5, p. 286.
The Republican offensive is directed not at the social objectives of the New Deal but at the economic measures by which the Roosevelt Administration has wooed recovery.
Lilienthal, David E.
"The TVA and Decentralization"
June, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 6, p. 335.
Our horizons widen every day. All enterprise is growing. In business and in government small units are vanishing. Local controls are surrendered, and power is yielded to remote authority. This is centralization, perhaps the most disturbing characteristic of our time. For in the scene of general bigness, men continue to come about the same size.
Knott, Sarah Gertrude
"North of the Border"
June, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 6, p. 339.
I have been north of the border in connection with the Coronado Cuarto Centennial to be held this year. Ever since Arthur L. Campa of the University of New Mexico brought a group of Spanish-Americans to the first National Folk Festival in St. Louis, which I founded, I had wanted to know more about the distinctive folk expressions of the Southwest.
Stoney, George C.
"A Valley to Hold To"
July, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 7, p. 391.
When the TVA first came to the Valley, eight years ago, these had been sixty-three acres of badly eroded land, part of fourteen million acres in the Valley that were sending down their topsoil into the waters of the Tennessee, causing floods, filling up the reservoirs of power dams and making them grow old before their time.
Kramer, Dale
"Want a Factory?"
August, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 8, p. 438.
Not long ago the city of Matchez, Miss., floated a $300,000 bond issue, constructed a factory building and leased it to a privately-owned tire company for a monthly rental of only $50. The example is not unique except that most of the millions of dollars of "bait" laid annually before industry by communities is raised by private subscription rather than voted out of the public treasury.
Allen, Jay
"Refugees and American Defense"
October, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 10, p. 486.
AS I SEE IT, NO ONE HAS THE RIGHT TO TALK ANY MORE about the "refugee problem." Hitler has "settled it" the way he has settled other problems that baffled us: the "injustice of Versailles," the treatment and disposition a racial minorities—and as he seems to be settling problem for us like isolation and unemployment. So it is and always will be when men of good will can't get past the problem stage.
Adamic, Louis
"From Bohemia: Ma and Pa Karas"
October, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 10, p. 489.
Helena Topkina was born in the late Eighties in Kozlany, an average Bohemian town midway between Pilsen and Prague. Decades later it took on fame as the birthplace of Eduard Benes, whom Helena then remembered as a pleasant-mannered boy two or three years her senior.
Saenger, Gerhart
"The Refugees Here"
November, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 11, p. 576.
For the past seven years a thin stream of refugees has been flowing into the United States. The Germans came first. But with the widening of the Nazi orbit, refugees arrived from Austria, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Poland, Scandanavia, and western Europe.
Close, Kathryn
"Back of the Yards"
December, 1940, Vol. 29, No. 12, p. 612.
The impossible is happening Back of the Yards in Chicago. In that neighborhood next to the slaughter houses representatives from the local Chamber of Commerce, the American Legion Post, the AFL, the CIO, the Catholic Church—Protestants, Jews, Irish, Slovaks, Mexicans, Poles—are gathering together in a new kind of attempt to solve the problems of a community.
Reed, Thomas H.
"Our Street"
May, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 5, p. 293.
OUR STREET IS EAST NINETEENTH STREET IN Manhattan, midway between Union and Madison Squares, one block south of Gramercy Park. The Survey Graphic offices have been located on it for more than a quarter of a century author lives on it. It has a distinct individuality and an undeniable charm.
Wilson, M.L.
"Food for a Stronger America"
July, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 7, p. 377.
DURING THE BLACK MONTHS OR YEARS AHEAD, WE must consider the nutritional status of the nation as a whole, as well as the status of its individuals.

I think we can all agree with the proposition that no man, woman, or child in the United States should be allowed to starve. But having pledged ourselves to that proposition we find we are committed to a good deal more than might be imagined.

McNutt, Paul V.
"The First Step Toward Fitness"
July, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 7, p. 379.
WHEN AMERICA BEGAN TO RECOVER FROM THE GREAT Depression, it began to take stock of its human resources. We found that a large minority of our population did not get enough to eat. These people who did not get enough to at were below par in health. They were below par in initiative and alertness.
Wilder, Russell M., M.D.
"Mobilize for Total Nutrition!"
July, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 7, p. 381.
EVIDENCE PRESENTED AT THE NATIONAL NUTRITION Conference should convince everyone that the nation is faced with a serious problem of malnutrition; that despite a so-called surplus of foods a great many of our people are not receiving the fare they need for strength of mind and body.
Sherman, Henry C.
"A Longer, Stronger Life"
July, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 7, p. 382.
Better nutrition can add a 10 percent dividend of health, strength, and happiness to the prime of life. There has not yet been time to study entire human life-cycles directly. But the nutritional improvement of health has been studied both in children and grown people; and large numbers of controlled experiments covering entire lives, and of successive generations, have been made with laboratory animals.
Hershey, Lewis B., Gen.
"The Lesson of Selective Service"
July, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 7, p. 383.
Out of a million men examined. by Selective Service and about 560,000 excepted by the army, a total of 380,000 have been found unfit for general military service. It has been estimated that perhaps one third of the rejections were due either directly or indirectly to nutritional deficiencies.
Wickard, Claude R.
"Agricultural Policy and Abundance"
July, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 7, p. 387.
IF THE COUNTRY PUSHES AHEAD IN A PROGRAM OF BETTER national nutrition, no one will rejoice more than the farmers. For the more thoughtful among them, it will be a dream come true. The farmer sets the national dinner table. His is the instinct and the tradition of the "good provider," who gives thanks when he sees everyone eating heartily.
Berle, Jr., A.A.
"American Food and Hunger Overseas"
July, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 7, p. 392.
IT HAS BEEN, AND IS, THE CONSISTENT POLICY OF THE UNITED States to make food resources available, so far as possible, to those countries which need them. Where normal commerce does not accomplish this result, this government historically has supplemented the supply by sending food, at its own expense, or at the expense of American organizations.
Wallace, Henry A.
"Food, Farmers, and Fundamentals"
July, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 7, p. 390.
Thanks to the ever-normal granary and the efficiency of modern farm production, we can approach the problem of nutrition more constructively than during the last war. There seems little likelihood that we shall have meatless days, or days without sugar.
Perkins, Frances
"City Diets and Democracy"
July, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 7, p. 393.
There is no doubt that one of the reasons why many American workers and their families-out of the 80,000,000 people dependent on wages and salaries do not receive a completely nutritious diet according to present-day standards, is that much of our knowledge on the subject of human needs is so new.
Elliott, Harriet
"Price and Supply on the Home Front"
July, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 7, p. 394.
Greatly increased demand for food—growing out of increased consumer purchasing power, army needs, and shipments under the Lease-Lend program—have been pushing food prices up. Efforts to achieve parity prices for farmers have added to the upward trend. It is our policy, however, that these prices shall be held within bounds.
Parran, Thomas, M.D.
"The Job Ahead"
July, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 7, p. 396.
ALL OF US TODAY ARE CONSCIOUS OF THE GRAVE TASK LYING before us. The President has declared a state of unlimited national emergency. In the weeks and months to come, we shall need not only planes and munitions, a growing army and navy, but also rugged health and courage. All these defenses are within our reach. Given the national will to do it, we have the power to build here in America a nation of people more fit, more vigorous, more competent; a nation with better morale, a more united purpose, more toughness of body, and greater strength of mind than the world has ever seen.
Paradise, Viola
"Schools for New Citizens"
September, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 9, p. 469.
SEPTEMBER . . . A NEW SCHOOL TERM. NOT ONLY FOR America's millions of school children, but for some two and a half million adults, as well. Under the sponsorship of local school boards, WPA, settlements, unions, churches, they study subjects ranging from simple English to international relations, from Diesel-engine operators to dietetics.
Seidman, Joel
"The State of the Unions"
November, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 11, p. 577.
Politicially, we are used to our Federal-State set-up with Washington the capital of a constellation of sovereign states. So, too, it is with labor; but for the most part the public tends to lump unionism together for better or worse. Yet here is decentralization under American democracy in the economic field, with national and local unions, and a new sort of Mason and Dixon line—the cleavage between AFL and CIO.
Seidman, Joel
"Six Significant Strikes of 1941"
November, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 11, p. 578.
1. Street Railways—More than 400,000 factory workers in Detroit walked, hitch-hiked, or drove their own cars to work on August 20, as a strike of AFL street car and motor coach operators shut down the municipally-owned transportation system. Many thousands of defense workers were among those unable to get to work on time on the four and one half days that the strike lasted.
Stark, Louis
"Tares in the Wheat"
November, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 11, p. 584.
THE PICTURE OF NATIONAL DEFENSE AND SUBVERSIVE activities is like a mirror with two sides. One side reflects the Nazi-Fascist aspect; the other side, the communist.

The Nazi-Fascist penetration of our defense program has been, in the main, confined to managerial and industrial circles, to attempts to nurture appeasement in the breasts of isolation-minded businessmen, and to espionage-industrial, economic, and military.

Tolan, John H.
"Our Migrant Defenders"
November, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 11, p. 615.
MIGRATION IN AMERICA IS A TRADITION. THAT IS HOW OUR country was founded; how we settled the frontier and pushed it constantly westward. Migration recruited the nation's labor supply, developed its resources, shaped its political institutions and built its powerful industrial structure.
Masters, Dexter
"Co-ops and the Consumer Crisis"
December, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 12, p. 682
WHEN SECRETARY ICKES PUT TOGETHER A COMMITTEE OF Industry representatives to help guide him through the complexities of petroleum conservation, one of the 200 people named was Howard A. Cowden, president of the Consumers Cooperative Association of North Kansas City, who now heads a cooperative petroleum subcommittee in his district.
Lord, Russell
"The Rebirth of Rural Life Part II"
December, 1941, Vol. 30, No. 12, p. 687
BARELY A MONTH BEFORE FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT'S FIRST inaugural, Raymond Moley made it known from advance guard offices of the New Deal in Washington that the President-elect had asked Henry A. Wallace, R. G. Tugwell, and M. L. Wilson of Montana to draw working plans, as a committee, to reorganize the Department of Agriculture as an instrument of active national planning.
The Survey
Zimand, Gertrude Folks
"Children Hurt at Work"
July, 1932, Vol. 68, No. 8, p. 326.
ONE of the many tragic aspects of the industrial exploitation of children is the army of boys and girls who, at the outset of their industrial careers, fall victims to the machine. Each year, in the sixteen states which take the trouble to find out what is happening to their young workers, no less than a thousand children under eighteen years are permanently disabled and another hundred are killed.
McConnell, Beatrice
"The Shift in Child Labor"
May, 1933, Vol. 69, No. 5, p. 187.
CHILD labor cannot be ignored as a vital factor in the present economic crisis. Children are leaving school and going to work at a time when millions of adults are jobless and many of these children are acting as the sole support of their families because their fathers and older brothers and sisters are unemployed.
Zimand, Gertrude Folks
"Will the Codes Abolish Labor?"
August, 1933, Vol. 69, No. 8, p. 290.
WHEN President Roosevelt on July 9 signed the Code of Fair Competition for the Cotton-Textile Industry, which bars from employment children under 16 years, he virtually removed from that industry several thousand children who will be replaced by adults.
Kurtz, Russell H.
"An End to Civil Works"
February, 1934, Vol. 70, No. 2, p. 35.
THE news that Civil Works is likely to be discontinued by the first of May has given the country a bad jolt. When the plan was projected last November, we Americans unitedly marveled at its audacity.
Springer, Gertrude
"But the Children Are Earning"
February, 1935, Vol. 70, No. 2, p. 40.
TWO hours of music had lifted Miss Bailey into blissful forgetfulness of the hard facts of life. But as she went out of the concert hall into the winter night reality descended on her.

"Pencil, lady, buy a pencil and help the unemployed."

Rossell, Beatrice Sawyer
"Book Relief in Mississippi"
March, 1935, Vol. 71, No. 3, p. 73.
A YEAR ago Elizabeth Robinson, secretary of the Mississippi Library Commission, was trying to keep the commission going although it was without appropriation and she herself had been without salary since June 1932. When the FERA launched its work program Miss Robinson saw a chance to provide both service and work.
Blair, Katherine
"Berry Picking and Relief"
August, 1935, Vol. 71, No. 8, p. 230.
THE agricultural labor problem in eastern North Carolina is an old one. The heavy seasonal crops, the demand for labor for intensive work over a few weeks, arc conditions which the truck farmer has faced year after year. Strawberry picking, bean picking, lettuce cutting—each calls for thousands of hands for a brief season.
"Relief in the Sit-Down Strike"
March, 1937, Vol. 73, No. 3, p. 69.
A SHARP reminder that "emergency" is the middle name of public relief agencies came home to the Genesee County, Mich. Welfare Relief Commission last month with the "sit-down strike" in Flint of the United Automobile Workers.
Bundy, Sarah Elizabeth
"A Side-Light on the N.Y.A."
August, 1937, Vol. 73, No. 8, p. 252.
WHEN the first bulletin of directions regarding the National Youth Administration reached me, I felt like jumping out my office window and calling it a day. The burden of my job as girls' vice-principal in a cosmopolitan high school was sufficiently heavy and varied without additions.

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